The ovaries, which are in the female reproductive system and responsible for egg production, are also the glands for the release of estrogen and progesterone. There are three different types of cells in the ovaries located on both sides of the uterus and different cell tumors can be observed in each cell.
- Epithelial tumorsoccur in cells covering the outer surface of the ovary.
- Germ cell tumorsare formed in cells responsible for egg production.
- Stromal tumorsare formed in ovarian cells responsible for estrogen and progesterone production.
Some of these tumors are benign and never goes away from the ovary, while malignant tumors (cancer cells) and tumors with potential for cancer may metastasize to different parts of the body.
Ovarian cancer, which is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells in ovarian tissues, may begin in the ovaries and at the end of the fallopian tubes according to recent scientific research results.
Ovarian Cancer Symptoms
The symptoms of ovarian cancer and the severity of complaints due to ovarian cancer may vary from person to person. You may feel the following symptoms in the early or late stages of ovarian cancer:
- Feeling of swelling
- Severe abdominal pain
- Immediately saturation after loss of appetite or eating a little
- Urinary problems
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Back pain and chronic fatigue
- Menstrual irregularity or excessive bleeding in menstrual periods
Causes of Ovarian Cancer
The causes of ovarian cancer are not exactly known. However, some risk factors can trigger the development of ovarian cancer in women. Factors that increase the risk of ovarian cancer include the progression of age (post-menopausal), obesity, not having a child or not having a full-term pregnancy, assisted reproductive techniques, post-menopausal hormone therapy, genetic predisposition, breast cancer, alcohol and smoking.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cancer
It may be necessary to perform gynecological examination, transvaginal ultrasound, CA-125 blood test (CA-125 hormone level is high in women with ovarian cancer) for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer; computed tomography and MRI in order to be able to determine how far cancer has spread, and PET scan for the spread rate of cancer. In addition to these diagnostic methods, laparoscopy, biopsy and blood tests can also be performed.
Ovarian cancer treatment is determined by the stage of the disease and the general health of the person. The ovaries are surgically removed and chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and hormone treatments can be performed after surgery. Depending on the position of cancerous cells, the treatment processes in which neoadjuvant chemotherapy is applied can also be put into use. The patient-specific treatment of ovarian cancer is planned and the best results are aimed.
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